Since I started reviewing solar generators nearly five years ago, the market has exploded with options. If you’re considering purchasing one of these, this video will serve as a buyer’s guide to help you find the best unit for your specific needs. The number one question I get asked regarding solar generators is which one of these is the best? In this video? I’m going to try to answer that question not based on an opinion. But instead I’ve spent a considerable amount of time running each of these through various tests. And after collecting the data, it’s pretty clear that there are a couple of models that really stand out among the competition.
Now, at the end of the video, we’re going to summarize all the data collected in a spreadsheet that you can download, which also has a calculator that allows you to define the items you want to power if the grid goes down, and you’ll quickly see which of these devices will power your needs, and which ones won’t. And also, be sure to stick around until the end as I’m going to do a giveaway, as I’ve got too many of these things sitting around my office. So here’s what we’ll cover. The first thing is a quick explanation of solar generators. And I think it’s important to start here to set realistic expectations. When shopping for one of these units.
We’ll do a run through of each model. And I’ll cover the main points of each model and give my thoughts on each. We’ll discuss solar panel options, and we’re going to briefly discuss options for each company, and other third party options. We’ll go through a buyer’s guide spreadsheet, and I’ll walk you through this free spreadsheet I’m providing that will show the results of all my testing the calculator which will show which of these devices can power your specific needs, will of course answer the question which one would I recommend? This is the most common question I get asked. So after covering everything we have in this video, I’ll give you my final thoughts.
And at the end, we’ll announce the solar generator giveaway and I’ll give all the details of how you can get signed up for that. Now, I’ll just warn you up front, this will probably be one of the longest videos I’ve ever done on this channel. As there’s a lot to cover when trying to determine which model is right for you. If you can grasp all the information that we’re going to discuss in this video, you will be able to see which one is best for you. And if you’d like to hop around the various chapters, I’ll post links in the description section below. Or you can move around to these timestamps shown here on the screen that will show you where each of these subject matters will be discussed.
So let’s jump in a quick explanation of solar generators. The first point is capacity. Capacity simply refers to the amount of power that this device can store. This unit is often listed as watt hours. Let me explain this quickly to a watt is a unit of power. When you look on the side of any of these devices that I have in front of me, you often see the watts that it pulls for one hour during Operation written on the side. And this light bulb, for example, requires nine watts per hour, it’s written in small print here on the side, this charger for my laptop pulls 45 Watts, and then this heating pad that’s in front of me that you can use for cooking, it pulls 1000 watts.
And finally this heat gun pulls 1800 watts per hour. And it’s written plainly here on the front, which is a lot of watts per hour. Okay, so these devices, they state how many watts they pull each hour. But what can I do with that information when I’m trying to determine my power needs after disaster, I have a very detailed video that breaks this all down which I’ll link to up in the cards above. But essentially, you have to determine how many watts you anticipate that you’re going to need to output each hour if there’s a disaster and the power goes down. In the spreadsheet that I’m going to detail at the end of this video, I’ll provide a lot of real use case scenarios that you can play around with.
To help you determine how much that you’re going to need. The majority of these that we’re going to review these different solar generators, they typically hold between about 1000 and roughly 3000 Watt hours. So let’s say after a disaster, I need to power this light bulb. And I need a power of this laptop that’s here in front of me. Now the light bulb it needs 919 watts each hour. And the laptop as we discussed a moment ago, it needs 45 Watts through this adapter. Now if we were to add nine plus 45, we get 50 for this Jackery 1500. It has a capacity of 1534 Watt hours. Now if we divide 1534 The capacity of this device by 54, the number of watts that I need to power between the light bulb in this charger, we get 28.4 This means that we can output 54 watts for about 28.4 hours. It’s really that simple. Now there are a lot of other factors that we’ll discuss momentarily that impact the total output. But if you get this initial concept, you’re doing great. Now let’s look at the second important factor. The next consideration is continuous in surge output.
This value it tells us The maximum number of watts that the battery can provide continuously through this device. If we were to look right down here on the front of it, we see that it states 1800 Watts, and I’ve got this right here on the side. That means that this device can output a maximum of 1800 watts at one time. For example, if we were to plug in a portable air conditioner, and a coffeemaker, and they combined pulled 1800 watts each hour, this solar generator could power them until the battery was completely depleted. Now, I don’t recommend that you run these ad 100% output, often as they’ll end up burning up the battery. If you were to run your car all day, at the maximum RPM, you’d burn up your motor very quickly. And the same principle applies to these devices.
And you ideally want to run them at about 30% of what the manufacturer lists, in this case about 900 watts. Now, regarding search, some devices when you start them up, they draw a lot of power. Think about things like fans, refrigerators, or Sol’s which have a motor inside. When you start these devices, you’ll see a momentary spike to get the engine moving, and then it will settle down to the continuous watts that we discussed in the previous point. Now, why is this important to understand this value, the surge value, this Jackery 1500, it has a surge capacity of 3600 Watts, if you were to plug in a device that has a higher surge and 3600 Watts, then it would cause this device to trip out.
And you’d have to start it over again. The third point is solar input capability. Now this is a very important number to consider when shopping for these devices. It gives you an understanding of how quickly you can charge this with solar panels if you don’t have any electricity at your house. Now smaller solar charging numbers let you know that you won’t be charging this very quickly. If a device is rated for a higher wattage, that means you’ll be able to charge it much faster because you can connect more solar panels but obviously that means you will need to buy more solar panels which starts adding costs to the bottom line. The final point is battery chemistry.
You typically have two options with these models, lithium ion or lithium iron phosphate. Lithium ion batteries are normally lighter, but you get fewer charge cycles. What are charge cycles. Have you ever noticed that your phone battery seems to not last as long after a year or two of usage, the battery after numerous charge cycles, it loses its ability to hold as much of a charge as it did when you first bought it. If I were to run this jack Reese battery from 100%, which is fully charged down to 0% fully depleted after 500 of these charge cycles, the battery could only hold 80% of the original capacity. So let’s say a solar generator is rated for 1000 watts of capacity.
After 500 cycles, it would only old 800 Watts 20% less than 1000. Also, their lifespan is about two to three years before they begin to see degradation in their storage capacity. Now lithium iron phosphate on the other hand is heavier, but it gets way more charge cycles. It typically is rated for about 3500 charge cycles at 80%. Which means that after 3500 cycles from 100% to 0%, it will still hold 80% of its original capacity, which is impressive plus they’re normally ready for roughly around 10 years. But the downside is or wait. For example, the Jackery 2000, which has a capacity of 2000 Watts, weighs 43 pounds and has lithium ion batteries whereas the Blue Yeti ac 200 Max, which also has a capacity of 2000 Watts, weighs 62 pounds, and has a lithium iron phosphate battery. Now the blue Eddie has other features which add weight overall but the Blue Yeti is roughly about 30% heavier.
So when shopping for these units determine if weight or charge cycles are more important. I keep a solar generator with lithium ion batteries next in my bug out bag as it’s light enough to grab and go and a lithium iron phosphate solar generator my garage for backup power source for my house as I would use it more frequently and it’s just not easy to transport details of each major brand. In this section of the video we’re going to go through each of the devices I’ve had a chance to review. And here’s what we’re going to cover for each, we’ll provide an overview of the specs, we’ll test the AC and DC output to see how many watts they actually produce.
After fully depleting the battery. We’re going to focus on the products X factors and I’ll finish with my thoughts on each product. Again, you’re going to be able to see all of these values from the test and the spreadsheet that we’re going to cover at the end of the video. I will tell you upfront that several of these companies have a lot of options. We’re going to look at the 1500 to 2500 continuous watt output range models. that these companies offer. And I realized that there’s a lot of options on the market. But what I did is I focused on the ones that I had on hand to test and the ones that you could realistically take in an evacuation, yet at the same time power basic household appliances like a small refrigerator. Now, having said that, I will introduce a few models outside of this range just to give you some additional options.
So let’s start with a blue Edie ac 200 Max. Remember, the specs that we’re going to cover were discussed earlier in the video blue Edie ac 200 Max, the storage capacity is 2048 Watt hours, the continuous maximum output is 2200 watts. Now the weight comes in at 62 pounds, which is definitely on the heavy side due to the battery technology using this model, which is lithium iron phosphate. The solar panels maximum input capability is 900 Watts Up to 145 volts and can be fully charged in roughly three hours, it can be expanded up to 6144 Watt hours, which you b 230s. And there’s one shown here, or 1192 Watt hours with two B three hundreds test results.
When plugging into the AC receptacles putting a 75% load on the battery, the efficiency was at 2%. And for the DC test, it came out to an 82% efficiency for AC that was average and for DC it was a little on the higher side in comparison to the others. For continuous output, it does rank among the highest of all the models solar input, this model can accept 900 Watts maximum per hour again, this is on the higher end compared to the other models, X factors. What are some unique features of this device,
there are quite a number of fascinating features I don’t have time to cover but of all the units that we’re covering this one is definitely the most feature rich device. And I’m going to point out a few of the highlights.
It can be connected via an app that they provide, it gives you real time data, the battery and the additional battery if you connect it, it is expandable which is becoming a more common feature of these types of devices. Shown here I have one B 230 battery, which can be powered by itself and provide power independent of the Blue Yeti ac 200 Max, which is a very unique feature for backup battery I haven’t seen with other manufacturers, I love the fact that the battery is lithium iron phosphate, which means the battery will be able to operate about seven times more than the standard lithium batteries. Most of these other devices have, out of all the units that I tested in this range, it is only Lithium Iron Phosphate battery. Overall thoughts. Well, I’m not a huge fan of the touchscreen to turn on the AC or DC.
That’s just a personal preference. This model out of all the units we’re reviewing is probably my recommendation for anyone that wants both a mobile option that is expandable, and you can power a significant number of devices in your home. And I love it this device because I believe it leads a pack based on the price point, the features the efficiency, and just overall capabilities ecoflo ecoflo has sent me several units, the Delta mini delta delta max and the Delta Pro. For this video, I’ll focus on the delta max as out of the four I think it represents the best option for the size of units that were discussing. I did test the other models which again are detailed in the spreadsheet, which we’ll discuss later.
So let’s take a look at the delta max. For the specs the storage capacity is 2016 Watt hours, the continuous maximum output is 2400 Watts, the height comes in at 48 pounds, which is a bit on the heavy side yet portable, and the maximum solar input capacity is 800 Watts, it can be expanded up to 6000 Watt hours with two additional batteries. For the test results when plugging into the AC receptacles putting a 75% load on the battery, the efficiency was 91%. And for the DC test, it came out to 73% efficiency for AC that was among the highest that we tested. But for the DC efficiency, it ranked among the poorest for continuous output, it ranks the highest of all the models solar input, this model can accept 100 Watts maximum per hour, again, a bit on the higher end compared to the other models X Factor. What are some unique features of this device expandability you can add on to additional batteries that give you a total capacity of six kilowatt hours. It can also be connected via an app they provide it gives you real time data of the battery.
And the additional battery if you connect it, it has the ability to fast charge for the first 80% of the battery when charging from empty, also known as a stadium effect from 0%. You can completely charge this and about 1.6 hours. I think a record for all these devices that we’re covering it as EPS functionality in EPS stands for emergency power supply. Essentially, it’s kind of the same as ups for our purpose here and that if you plug in a critical device to the ecoflo Delta while it’s plugged into a power source, if the power does go offline, the switch over to continue powering your device is only 30 milliseconds something you won’t even really notice overall thoughts at the moment I keep this one next my bug out gear in case we have to head out due to its relatively lightweight compact design.
Mine expandability high capacity, high AC output efficiency and high solar input capability, it is my go to if we have to evacuate. In regards to the company itself. I do like their innovation in providing options that range from small lightweight options up to whole house power options that are still mobile, I’ll post the link in the cards above if you want to see a more in depth breakdown of this product. In my opinion, the ecoflo delta max is a very, very close second for disasters behind the blue Eddie indefinitely would be on my first choice in a bug out situation jakhary For Jackery, our mostly focus on the 1500.
I do have a Jackery 1000 that I received two years ago, but it’s recently stopped working. Why I’m not quite sure. But I’ve also received the 2000, which I include in the spreadsheet breakdown. But I don’t have an idea when they’re going to come back and stop. But the 1500 is the one that they’re primarily marketing at the moment. So let’s run through the numbers and see how it compares to the other options. On the market specs, the storage capacity is 1534 Watt hours, the continuous maximum output is 1800 Watts, the weight comes in at 35 pounds, which is on the lighter side. For these models. The maximum solar input capacity is 400 Watts, which is definitely on the smaller side. And for the test results when plugging into the AC receptacles putting a 75% load on the battery, the efficiency was 91%.
And for the DC test, they came out to an 84% efficiency for AC that was among the highest that we tested. And for the DC efficiency it ranked among the best for continuous output. It’s about average for solar input, this model can accept 400 Watts maximum per hour, again, which is a bit on the lower end compared to the other models. Now regarding X factors, what are some unique features of this device. Out of all the devices that we’ve tested. This one is by far the most basic, it’s kind of a What You See Is What You Get defies the company targets the overlanding van lifestyle community. And if all I wanted was something that gets simply carried around on road trips without needing bells or whistles, this just might be the option that I would look for. So my overall thoughts as I mentioned a moment ago is it’s kind of a playing device.
It’s a bit on the lower side when it comes to solar input. But it does do a very good job when it comes to AC output efficiency. The one thing I very much dislike about this company is their proprietary eight millimeter solar input connection. And they don’t make it easy to connect to other solar panels in the market. And that’s intentional. If you’re looking for a basic setup with the solar panels or a thought Allah by the company. And you just simply want to plug and play option this might be for you. Energy, energy is newest product is the Flex 1500. Let’s run through the specs starting off the storage capacity is 1000 Watt hours, the continuous maximum output is 1500 Watts, and the weight comes in at 29 pounds, which is one of the lighter models that I tested. Now the maximum solar input capacity is 400 Watts, which is definitely on the smaller side.
As far as the test results when plugging into the AC receptacles putting a 75% load on the battery, the efficiency was 89%. In the DC test, it came to 85% efficiency for AC that was slightly above average. And for the DC efficiency a ranked among the best for continuous output, it was on the low end at 1500 watts. Now regarding solar input, this model can accept 400 Watts maximum per hour again, which is a bit on the lower end compared to the other models. As far as X factors. The main unique feature is its modularity. One of the biggest questions I get asked is if the battery dies on a solar generator, then what the flex it solves that issue by making the head unit separate from the battery with the rest of the devices we’ve covered. Once the battery is spent, the unit is pretty much a paperweight. They’re also rolling out a DC head unit and an MPPT supercharger, which you can add on. They’ve also partnered with EMP shield to help protect your device in the event of an EMP. Overall, I think compared to the other units on the market. It’s definitely one of the most expensive options for what you get. I would recommend these to those that are looking for modular system.
The main issue that you must be aware of though with this manufacturer is availability. Unfortunately, they have been a victim of the supply chain disruptions, and some customers are having to wait for extended periods of time to actually receive their product. If purchasing one of these, I would definitely recommend discussing this concern with their support team before making the purchase. This is one of the main pluses of this company though is that they are based in the US one of the two companies we’re reviewing which leads me to my next option, which is gold zero. Gold zero is the OG of the solar battery market. They’ve been around the longest as far as I know and you will often see them in major retail stores. Now regarding the specs the storage capacity is 1516 Watt hours, the continuous maximum output is 2000 Watts, the weight comes in and 46 pounds and the maximum solar input capacity is 600 watts which is about average for these devices. Now with the test results when plugging into the AC receptacles putting a 75% load on the battery, the efficiency was a abysmal 69%. And for the DC test, it came out to an 81% efficiency. For AC, this was the lowest of all the models that I tested.
And for the DC efficiency at rank the best for continuous output, it was on the low end. Now regarding solar input, this model can accept 400 Watts maximum per hour again, it’s on the lower end compared to the other models that we’re looking at. Regarding X factors. After receiving the unit from Goal Zero, I checked out their site and I found out that they have a lot of options for modularity, expandability, and even a panel that you can have installed so that the battery system serves as standby power to power a few small devices in your home if the grid were to go offline. It does, however, get very pricey very quickly with these upgrade options.
They also have an app that allows you to connect to the device and monitor the battery and other functionality. If you want a company that has a proven track record, and has all his ducks in a row when it comes to add ons and other features, this might be the right fit for you. Overall compared to the other units on the market. It’s definitely the most expensive based on the kilowatt hours after testing the efficiency, which I’ll explain a little more at the end of the video. While they’ve definitely been around the longest and our base in the United States, one of the two companies we reviewed, you are paying a premium pack Ron, I decided to introduce one unknown brand in this video just to give you an idea of some other lesser known options. So far the solar generators we covered our brand names most will recognize if you’ve been looking at these products. https://blogs.nmit.ac.nz/showcase/question/unser-angebot/
But this last one is a company that’s been around for a little while and reviewed by a few other YouTubers that I follow. So I thought I’d introduce this into the video just so you’re aware of a few other options. So let’s start off with the specs. storage capacity is a whopping 3108 Watt hours, which is the highest that we’ve reviewed of all these devices, the continuous maximum output is 2000 Watts, which is slightly better than average, the weight comes in at 55 pounds, the maximum solar input capacity is a whopping 1200 watts. Now as far as test results when plugging into the AC receptacles, putting a 75% load on the battery, the efficiency was 85% in for the DC test, it came out to 81% efficiency. For AC this was above average for the models that I’ve tested. And for the DC efficiency was pretty much average. Now as far as the solar input.
As I mentioned, this model can accept 1200 Watts maximum per hour the highest that we’ve reviewed. As far as X factors, like the jakhary. It’s kind of a straightforward model without a lot of bells and whistles. But I don’t think that was their intent with this unit. I think their intent was to provide the most power at the lowest price point. Overall, this model does stand out among the units that we’ve reviewed. By far it had the largest capacity and the highest solar input, the cost for kilowatt was also the lowest and the efficiency ratings were solid. I’ll have to admit that I was a little hesitant reviewing this model, as I didn’t know much about the brand name. But I think if you’re looking for a solid, powerful, affordable option that will deliver a lot of performance, this might be the model for you. Now, you may be asking why aren’t you giving a full approval this my only hesitancy and giving a full recommendation is a very very low price point for what you’re getting. But if you’re interested in me doing a more in depth review on this, please let
me know in the comment section below. Solar panel options when it comes to solar panel options are you limited to the solar panels that the manufacturer recommends. The manufacturer will this information on the website explain the Watts amps and voltage ranges when connecting your device to solar panels. You always want to be careful to observe the manufacturer’s recommended values to prevent overloading the device and potentially voiding out your warranty. Typically the list the recommended solar panels that you can purchase with the unit that works within the range that they set. Normally these come at a premium though, there are lower price options on the market such as rigid solar panels that are often used for permanent exterior mounting, they’re not really ideal for mobility. Now these solar panels may be either too heavy or too bulky to transport if there’s a disaster forcing you to evacuate. In that case, you may want to purchase a manufacturers panels as are typically often pre portable. For maximum mobility. Though I do recommend one vendor that I’ve showcased on the channel. They sell solar blankets which can literally be rolled up and easily deployed. They’re light enough and small enough to be easily stored if you’re forced to evacuate. And these do have a higher voltage so they do produce a considerable amount more than most solar panels on the market, decreasing your time to charge plus they do better in low light conditions. Now they do come at a much higher price point. But like all things you do pay for a better product. And I’ll post a link to the solar blankets below and in the spreadsheet will document how many can be used with these solar generator if you’d like to pair them with the unit that you’re looking at. Bye Here’s a guide spreadsheet. In this section, I’m going to run you through a spreadsheet that I’ve created. So you can quickly compare the brands see all the information for each manufacturer. And I’ve also included a calculator that will allow you to determine which of these devices will power your specific needs. Before we begin, if you have a Gmail account and are logged into Google on your browser, you can go to File and then choose Make a copy, named the file and then save it to your Google Drive which is free if you have a Gmail account. This will allow you to edit the document which will also come in handy when using the calculator. If you want to see how much you’re paying per watt for this device, you can sort the costs for what our actual column from A to Z. After running our AC efficiency tests, you can see how much you’re really paying for each one. Some are affordable, and some you’re paying a lot for each kilowatt of capacity. The next column over AC efficiency shows us how efficient these devices are after running them into the batteries drain, you see how efficient the AC output is on the device. This also applies to the DC efficiency column title. These two values are important because it gives you a very clear representation of how much power that you’ll get out of these devices running either AC or DC power devices. On the Solar Max tab, we can see how much solar input these devices can handle. I would encourage you to take your time to review this data as you’ll quickly get a high level overview of the AC and DC efficiency, the output capability costs weight and solar input capability. Now the next tab over is a calculator that quickly helps you establish which of these devices can power your needs. On the left we have a list of devices you may need to power after disaster. Under quantity, you can select from the drop down how many of these devices that you have. For example, you may have to 18 cubic feet refrigerators. If so select quantity two, you may want to power the internet router if the power were to go offline, so select quantity one. Now obviously, if the values we have here are not what your device needs, you can alter any of the values to match your specific needs. One small note though, refrigerators typically run continuously eight hours per day. So while we have 600 watts for a freezer, if you were to cut that by 1/3, because eight hours is 1/3 of 24 hours in a single day, you may want to drop that down to 200 watts. So once you’ve made your selection, if you look on the right side of the spreadsheet, you’ll see values added up under each product. And we put the products at the top of the columns and you can scroll over to see the rest. At the top under the product name, we have running Watts and surge watts, which we discussed earlier. Also, as we discussed, you typically want to run these devices at about one half their output capacity to avoid damaging them. Which is why you’ll see the recommended running whites at the bottom to be one half of the value of the running lots at the top. Now you’ll see behind the numbers either red or green background it green that means this device will be able to power your needs. If it’s red, it means the device is not big enough to handle your needs. In either you’ll need to cut your requirements back or find a bigger solar generator. Also, the other column under each product is a surge Max watts. This shows us if any of the devices you selected the power will require more starting power than this device can offer. Now if you scroll down further, you’ll see the content on your duration. This tells us how long this device can power your equipment. If it’s not plugged into a solar panel or AC outlet. You’ll notice that I did but the AC efficiency test results here we’re multiplying the state of manufacturer capacity times efficiency rating, which shows us how long you really can power your devices. If you start clicking the tabs at the bottom to the right, you’ll see the various devices I tested and their values plus the costs and other relevant manufacturer information. At the top I list where you can pick these up in their prices. Next, under battery I list the battery chemistry and capacity under solar, you can get additional information regarding how much solar and watts it can handle, along with how long it would take to charge this device. Under the AC section, you’ll see how many kilowatt hours these devices output during testing and other important information regarding pure sine wave. Most of them didn’t produce a pure sine wave under heavy loads. And I had an electrician look at the values that got on my oscilloscope. And none of them in his opinion were out of the range of acceptability so as to destroy any sensitive devices. But I didn’t want to bring this to your attention unless under 12 volt DC I show how much in volts and outputs along with how many watts it output during testing. And I stated the efficiency level. I also noted noise for each of these which was hardly anything. And I also listed any interesting X factors that made these devices stand out. Now at the bottom I get the recommendation for what you’ll likely use this product for such as car camping or home or emergencies which would I recommend All right. So after having covered everything that we did in this video, which of these units would I personally recommend? The answer is, it depends. A lot of it comes down to your specific needs in the spreadsheet, we just went over details the main items that are important to consider. Now, having said that, there are two that stand out for me first is the Blue Yeti ac 200 Max, for the price that you paid, it offers quite a lot. Plus, it’s expandable. Out of all the units that we covered, it is only portable option that has a lithium iron phosphate battery, which will allow you to get far more charge cycles. of very, very close second, though, is the ecoflo delta max. It is very close in his capabilities to the blue Eddie. And they’re similar in both expandable but I do like the fact that it’s lighter and it’s more compact and it’s easier to transport. And for this reason, I keep it next to my bug out gear. If I had a head out, it would be the option that I would grab. Now if your primary consideration is the most bang for your buck. And the PEC Ron e 3000. stands out. It offers a lot of capacity and has the highest solar input capability of all the units that we reviewed. But it is the most expensive unit but not by much. And I may do a breakout video on it here shortly. solar generator giveaway. All right for the solar generator giveaway. Here’s what we’re going to do. I’ll ship this ecoflo Delta mini to the winner of our contest giveaway. To enroll in the contest, simply go to city prepping.com Ford slash solar generator. There you can sign up for our newsletter to get the spreadsheet plus be automatically enrolled for our giveaway. In exactly one month from releasing this video, we’re going to send out an email to the winner so please be sure to check your inbox as we send out emails each week. Hopefully this video provides you enough information to help you in your decision making process. I would encourage you to watch the video after this one detailing how to determine your power needs after the grid goes down, which covers this subject in more detail to ensure you really have a strong understanding which reinforces what we covered here in a lot more detail. And I’ll post a link to that video in the cards above. If you do have any questions or any feedback, please feel free to post that below. As always stay safe out there.
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